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时间:2008-8-7栏目:英语论文

对于学生来说,英语最难学的就是语法知识。英语语法条目繁多,难记.而且枯燥无味。学生说,记了那么多的语法条目,很容易混淆,两且不会用。这怎么办?

  这好办。学语法,找规律,做个有心人;变复杂为简单,巧记固定搭配。下面就部分语法知识进行归纳:

一、非谓语动词

  “非谓语动词”可分为动词不定式、动名词和分词。它在句子中的作用很多:除了不作谓语外,它可以充当主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语与复合宾语(主语补语或宾语补语)。有些及物动词后面接不带to的不定式作复合宾语。这些动词归纳如下:一感(feel).二听(hear,listen to),三让(have,1et, make),四看(see,watCh,notice,observe)。再加上help somebody(to)do something和美国英语look at somebody do somthing。还有“二让”属特殊:get somebody to do something 与keep somebody doing。而有些及物动词后面接动名词(the -ing form)作宾语。这些动词归纳为一句话:Papa C makes friends。这是由如下动词的开头字母组成:permit,advise, practise,avoid,consider,mind, allow,keep,enjoy,suggest, finish,risk,imagine,escape,need,delay,stand(忍受)。 为了容易记住,也可以编成顺口溜:“允许完成练习,建议避免冒险,考虑延期逃跑,喜欢保持想象,需要反对忍受”。其相对应的动词依次是:permit/allow,finish,practise;
advise/suggest, avoid,risk: consider, delay, escape/miss; enjoy/appreciate, keep, imagine; need/want/require,mind. can't help/can’t stand。

二、复合句

  1、学生最容易混淆的是定语从句与同位语从句的区别。

例如:A、The news that our team has won the match is true. (同位语从句)
   B、The news that he told us surprised everybody here. (定语从句)

  关键的区别在于连接或关系代词that:有意义的是定语, 无意义的是同位。因为引导定语从句的that在从句中作主语或 宾语,而引导同位语从句的that只起到连接词的作用。

  2、接着容易混淆的是引导定语从句的关系代词that与 which:that之前是不定(代词)、序数(词)、(形容词)最高级:which之前是介词短语与逗号(非限制性)。

例如:A、All that we have to do is to practise every day.
   B、The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.
   C、I have lost my pen,which I like very much.
   D、The house in front of which there is a garden is my home.

三、It的用法

  1、It除了代替人和物以外,还可以作形式主语。而真正的主语(不定式、动名词或从句)则放于谓语或表语之后。

例如:It is nor easy to finish the work in two days.

  然而有少数表语之后接动名词作真正的主语。这些表语是:无助(no help)、无用(no use)、没好处(no good);工作(hard work)、费时(a waste of time)、又危险(a danger)。

例如:A、It is no use crying over spilt milk.
   B、It is a waste of time waiting for him.

  2、It还可以作形式宾语。通常下列动词后面可接it作形式宾语:2f2tcjm(find,feel,think,take,consider,judge, make)。

例如:A、He made it clear that he was not interested in this subject.
   B、I think it no use arguing with him.

  3、It用于强调句式。要强调句子的某一部分(主语、宾语、 状语),可以把it当作先行词。这种句子的结构是:It is(was)+ 被强调部分+that(who)+句子的其余部分。

例如:A、It iS Professor Lin who teaches us English—(强调主语)
   B、It was in Shanghai that l saw the film.—(强调状语)
   C、It was in 1990 that I worked in the factory.(同上)

  但要注意与定语从句的区别。
例如:D、It was 1990 when I worked in the factory.(定语从句)

  在强调句式里,我们把强调结构It is(was)…that除去,句子还很完整。如例句C。而例句D就不能。

四、倒装结构

  学生容易混淆的是全部倒装与部分倒装。如何区分之,编个顺口溜:副(adv.)介(prep.)提前全倒装,其它句式部分倒;否定提前倒助动,让步状语倒表语;复合句式倒主句,不
倒装的属特殊。下面举例说明:

  A、Here comes the bus.(副词提前,全倒装)
  B、Here he comes.(代词作主语,不倒装)
  C、In front of the house lies a garden.(介词短语提前,全倒装)
  D、Never shall I do this again.(否定词提前,部分倒装)
  E、Young as he is ,he knows a lot.(让步状语从句,表语倒装)
  F、Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in.(only 修饰状语,主句倒装)
  G、Only he can save the patient.(only修饰主语.不倒装)
    H、Not only will help be given to people,but also medical treatment will be provided.(否定词提前,部分倒装


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